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Vaccino MPR: la storia non si cancella!

Lo scorso mese di febbraio 2012 è uscita una nuova revisione della Cochrane sul vaccino MPR  le cui conclusioni rappresentano il lavaggio delle mani e della coscienza in merito ai danni provocati da questo vaccino trivalente a virus vivi attenutati: "il design e la comunicazione dei risultati di sicurezza negli studi del vaccino MMR, pre- e post-marketing, sono in gran parte inadeguate. Le prove degli eventi avversi dopo vaccinazione con il vaccino MMR non possono essere separate dal suo ruolo nella prevenzione delle malattie a cui è destinato".

Proseguire a dichiarare sicuro un vaccino che non lo è affatto, il più grande scandalo della medicina moderna, è decisamente antipatico dal punto di vista sanitario per i danni che genera alla salute dei bambini e anche per i danni di immagine che suscita nei genitori nei confronti del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale.

Dopo la recente sentenza del Tribunale di Rimini [alla quale potrebbe aggiungersi presto un altro caso] che è tornata ad associare la vaccinazione anti Morbillo-Parotite-Rosolia [MPR] all'Autismo, e conseguente alzata di scudi da parte di varie Federazioni di Igiene e Pediatria, ben agisce il Tribunale del Malatonel pieno rispetto di una scelta consapevole,  affermando che “i genitori abbiano invece il diritto di avere informazioni certe sui possibili rischi [avvalorati da ricerche scientifiche valide]“.

Il primo caso eclatante risale al 1986, anno in cui in Canada venne isolato nel vaccino TRIVIRIX il pericoloso ceppo URABE AM-9 che si rese responsabile di alcuni casi di meningite post vaccinica come riportato dallo studio Champagne et al. Can Dis Weekly Rep. 1987;13:155-157. Nel 1987 il TRIVIRIX viene ritirato dal mercato.

Nel 1988 The Lancet pubblica, nel Volume 2 di luglio, l’articolo Mumps meningitis following measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation a seguito dei vari casi di reazioni avverse che occorsero in Canada, Regno Unito e Giappone.

Nel 1990 la licenza del TRIVIRIX venne revocata in Canada, Malysia, Philippine, Singapore e Australia.

Nel settembre 1992 la SmithKline Beecham [l’attuale GSK] obbliga uno stop urgente del  vaccino PLUSERIX utilizzato nel Regno Unito. Inoltre, altissimi rischi di reazioni anafilattiche vengono riportate negli Stati Uniti e pubblicati nello studio Allergic reactions to MMR vaccine  niente di meno che da PEDIATRICS [la stessa rivista che, ricca di contraddizioni, a settembre 2010 dichiara che il Mercurio è scientificamente sano ].

Sempre a settembre del 1992 entra in gioco il famoso vaccino MMR II della Merck Sharp & Dhome in sostituzione del sopra citato PLUSERIX e del IMMRAVAX.

La vaccinazione con i vaccini antiparotite  contenenti il ceppo URABE AM-9 è stata associata alla comparsa di casi di meningite asettica. L’incidenza riportata in letteratura è molto variabile: 1 caso ogni 2.000 dosi, 6 casi ogni 2.000 dosi, 1 caso ogni 3.800 dosi.

In Giappone, uno studio ha riportato 49 casi di meningite asettica ogni 100.000 dosi di ceppo URABE AM-9 prodotto localmente [Ueda K, Miyazaki C, Hidaka Y, et al. Aseptic meningitis caused by measles, mumps, rubella vaccine in Japan. Lancet 346: 701-702, 1995]. Uno studio successivo ha riportato un incidenza di 100 casi ogni 100.000 dosi [Sugiura et al. Aseptic meningitis as a complication of mumps vaccination. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10: 209-213, 1991]. I dati giapponesi suggeriscono che non tutti i ceppi Urabe AM-9 abbiano lo stesso profilo di reattogenicità. Infatti, uno studio prospettico di sorveglianza dopo vaccinazione con quattro diversi prodotti MPR contenenti il ceppo URABE AM-9 hanno mostrato che l’incidenza di meningite asettica confermata virologicamente variava da 0 a 170 casi per 100.000 a seconda del prodotto [Kimura M, Kuno-Sakai H, Yamazaki S et al. Adverse events associated with MMR vaccines in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1996 Jun;38(3):205-11]. In Giappone i vaccini MPR, che contenevano tutti il ceppo URABE AM-9, sono stati ritirati nel 1993.

 La realtà italiana

In Italia negli anni ’90 sono stati presenti sul mercato vaccini contenenti ceppo URABE AM-9 [Pluserix della ditta SKB, Morupar della Ditta Sclavo-Chiron, Vaxipar della ditta Sclavo-Chiron] e vaccini contenenti il ceppo RUBINI [Triviraten della ditta Berna].

Poi sono stati introdotti sul mercato vaccini contenenti il ceppo Jeryl Lynn [MMRII della ditta Aventis Pasteur, anno di registrazione 1994] e il ceppo RIT-4385, derivato dal Jeryl Lynn [Priorix della ditta Glaxo Smith Kline, anno di registrazione 1998, contenente cellule di feti abortiti].

Il vaccino Pluserix fu ritirato dalla ditta produttrice nel 1992, come accennavo in precedenza, a seguito delle osservazioni provenienti dal Regno Unito, mentre il ceppo Rubini è stato ritirato dal commercio nel 2001, data la sua scarsa efficacia.

Fino al 2003 il ceppo URABE AM-9 si trovava in commercio in Italia come vaccino monovalente [Vaxipar della Chiron] e come vaccino trivalente morbillo-parotite-rosolia [Morupar della Chiron]. Da sottolineare che la quantità di virus nei preparati Morupar e Vaxipar era di 4 volte inferiore a quella contenuta nel Pluserix [5.000 TCID50 rispetto a 20.000 TCID50]. Inoltre si affermava che il ceppo URABE prodotto dalla Chiron aveva una maggiore stabilità genetica rispetto al ceppo URABE prodotto dalla Smith Kline Beecham [Amexis G, Fineschi N, Chumakov K. Correlation of Genetic Variability with safety of Mumps Vaccine Urabe AM9 strain. Virology 2001 Aug; 287(1):234-41].

Malgrado l’intensa campagna vaccinale in atto i dati forniti dalla farmacovigilanza sono sempre incompleti [pessimo fenomeno di under-reporting generato da malcostume], al 2011 sembrano aumentati i casi di morbillo malgrado questa vaccinazione è proposta a tappeto da parecchi anni [dai 3.065 segnalati nel 2010 si è passati ai 4.600 nel 2011 con un aumento percentuale di quasi il 50% da un anno all’altro, forse c’è qualche problema di affidabilità???] e si prosegue a chiamare autismo [diagnosi esclusivamente comportamentale] ciò che, in bambini predisposti dal punto di vista immunitario, è a tutti gli effetti una encefalopatia post vaccinica [diagnosi biologica].

Attualmente, oltre al sopra citato Priorix, vi sono in commercio anche 2 vaccini tetravalenti [Morbillo Parotite Rosolia Varicella – Priorix Tetra e Proquad] che hanno richiamato l’attenzione oltre il livello di guardia da parte del Working Group Pediatrico dell’AIFA. E’ stato stimato che nei bambini tra 12-23 mesi di età si hanno da 7 a 9 casi di convulsioni febbrili ogni 10.000 bambini vaccinati con vaccino tetravalente [Morbillo Parotite Rosolia Varicella] e 3-4 casi ogni 10.000 bambini vaccinati con il vaccino trivalente [Morbillo Parotite Rosolia] e il vaccino monovalente Varicella somministrati separatamente. In pratica, non solo è atteso un caso in più di convulsione febbrile ogni 2300-2600 bambini vaccinati dopo vaccinazione con MPRV rispetto alla somministrazione separata di MPR e V, ma viene confermato indirettamente che il vaccino trivalente MPR prosegue ad essere insicuro. 

Per coloro che promuovono calendari vaccinali da 0 a 100 anni questi numeri sono insignificanti, a tal punto da organizzare ampie offensive mediatiche. C’è da chiedersi se queste persone sono dotate di dignità umana e di buon senso: considerato che ancora oggi proseguono a screditare una massa di genitori in grandissima difficoltà, definendoli in modo irrispettoso e dispregiativo “attivisti anti-vaccinali, talebani, dissidenti“.

C’è da chiedersi se queste persone sono dotate di dignità umana, di buon senso e professionalità quando è possibile elencare un’ampia bibliografia, probabilmente dimenticata in qualche soffitta da parte di questi promotori vaccinali [allineati a ordini di scuderia che alimentano Il segreto delle procedure riguardanti il sistema regolatorio dei farmaci], che dimostra come il vaccino MPR non è assolutamente esente da rischi [talvolta molto gravi].

Bibliografia

Vaccino MPR e disturbi neurologici
[compresi danni del Sistema Nervoso Centrale, Panencefalite Subacuta sclerosante, Sindrome di Guillain Barré]

  • Bottiger, M., et al. “Swedish experience of two dose vaccination programme aiming at eliminating measles, mumps and rubella.” British Medical Journal 1987; 295:264-67.
  • Thomas, E. “A case of mumps meningitis: A complication of vaccination?” Journal of the Canadian Medical Association 1988; 138:135.
  • Champagne, S., et al. “A case of mumps meningitis: a post-immunization complication?” Canadian Disease Weekly Report 1988; 13-35:155-156.
  • Ehrengut, W. “Mumps vaccine and meningitis.” Lancet 1989; 2:751.
  • Von Muhlendahl, K.E. “Mumps meningitis following measles, mumps and rubella immunisations.” Lancet (August 12, 1989), p. 394.
  • Cizman, M., et al. “Aseptic meningitis after vaccination against measles and mumps.” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1989; 8:302-308.
  • McDonald, J., et al. “Clinical and epidemiological features of mumps meningo-encephalitis and possible vaccine-related disease.” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (November 1989), pp. 751-754.
  • Gray, J.A., et al. “Mumps meningitis following measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.” Lancet 1989; i:98.
  • Gray, J.A., et al. “Mumps vaccine meningitis.” Lancet 1989; i:927.
  • Murray, M.W., et al. “Mumps meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.” Lancet 1989; ii:877.\
  • “Mumps meningitis and MMR vaccination.” [Editorial] Lancet 1989; ii:1015-1016.
  • Forsey, T., et al. “Mumps viruses and mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine.” British Medical Journal 1989; 299:1340.
  • Forsey, T., et al. “Mumps vaccines and meningitis.” Lancet 1992; 340:980.
  • Miller, E., et al. “Risk of aseptic meningitis after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in U.K. children.” Lancet 1993; 341:979.
  • Sawada, et al. Lancet 1993; 342:371.
  • Schneck, S.A. “Vaccination with measles and central nervous system disease.” Neurology 1968; 18 (Part 2):79-82.
  • Jabbour, J.T., et al. “Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).” Journal of the American Medical Association 1972; 220:959-62.
  • Belgamwar, R.B., et al. “Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.” Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1997; 95(11):594.
  • Landrigan, P.J., et al. “Neurological disorders following live measles-virus vaccination.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1973; 223 (13):1459-62.
  • Miller, C.L. Lancet (September 17, 1983).
  • Beale, A.J. “Measles vaccines.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 1974; 67:1116-1119.
  • Roden, A.T. “Fits following immunization.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 1974; 67:24.
  • Jagdis, F., et al. “Encephalitis after administration of live measles vaccine.” Journal of the Canadian Medical Association (April 19, 1975); 112(8):972-75.
  • Hirayama, M. “Measles vaccines used in Japan.” Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1983; 5:495-503.
  • Pollock, T.M., et al. “A 7-year survey of disorders attributed to vaccination in Northwest Thames Region.” Lancet 1983; 1:753-57.
  • Jorch, G. et al. “Coincidence of virus encephalitis and measles-mumps vaccination.” Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1984; 132(5):299-300.
  • Martinon-Torres, F., et al. “Self-limited acute encephalopathy related to measles component of viral triple vaccine.” Rev Neurol (May 1-15, 1999); 28(9):881-82.
  • Grose, C., et al. “Guillain-Barre syndrome following administration of live measles vaccine.” American Journal of Medicine 1976; 60:441-43.
  • Norrby, R. “Polyradiculitis in connection with vaccination against morbilli, parotitis and rubella.” Lakartidningen 1984; 81:1636-37.
  • Morris, K., et al. “Guillain-Barre syndrome after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.” Lancet 1994; 343:60.
  • Wakefield, A., et al. “Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly.” Adverse Drug Reaction and Toxicologica Reviews2000; 19(4):265-283.
  • Templeton, S. “MMR vaccine should not have been licensed.” Sunday Herald(London: December 10, 2000). [Article]
  • Petrovic, M., et al. “Second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: questionnaire survey of health professionals.” British Medical Journal2001; 322:82-85. [Doctors and nurses do not recommend it.]
  • BBC News. “Why Japan stopped using MMR,” (February 8, 2002).

Vaccino MPR  e meningite [statistiche]

  • Sugiura, A., et al. “Aseptic meningitis as a complication of mumps vaccination.” Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1991; 10:209-213. [1 case of meningitis per 2000 doses of mumps vaccine.]
  • Fujinaga, T., et al. “A prefecture-wide survey of mumps meningitis associated with measles, mumps and rubella vaccine.” Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases 1991; 10:204-209. [6 cases of meningitis per 2000 doses of mumps vaccine.]
  • Colville, A., et al. “Mumps meningitis and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.” Lancet 1992; 340:786. [1 case of meningitis per 3800 doses of mumps vaccine.]

Vaccino MPR e diabete

  • Sultz, H.A., et al. “Is mumps virus an etiologic factor in juvenile diabetes mellitus?” Journal of Pediatrics 1975; 86:654-656.
  • Sinaniotis, C.A., et al. “Diabetes mellitus after mumps vaccination (letter).” Archives of Disease in Childhood 1975; 50:749-750.
  • Quast, U., et al. “Vaccine-induced mumps-like diseases.” Developments in Biological Standardization 1979; 43:269-272.
  • Otten, A., et al. “Mumps, mumps vaccination, islet cell antibodies and the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus type I.” Behring Institute Mitteilungen 1984; 75:83-88.
  • Helmke, K., et al. “Islet cell antibodies and the development of diabetes mellitus in relation to mumps infection and mumps vaccination.” Diabetologia 1986; 29:30-33.
  • Fescharek, R., et al. “Measles-mumps vaccination in the FRG: an empirical analysis after 14 years of use. II. Tolerability and analysis of spontaneously reported side effects.” Vaccine 1990; 8:446-456.
  • Pawlowski, B., et al. “Mumps vaccination and type-1 diabetes.” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1991; 116:635.
  • Adler, J.B., et al. “Pancreatitis caused by measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.” Pancreas 1991; 6:489-490.
  • Albonico, H., Klein, P., et al. “The immunization campaign against measles, mumps and rubella — coercion leading to a realm of uncertainty: medical objections to a continued MMR immunization campaign in Switzerland.” JAM 1992; 9(1). [180 European medical doctors jointly noted that the mumps vaccine “can trigger diabetes, which only becomes apparent months after vaccination.”]

Il vaccino anti-morbillo [e trivalente MPR] associato a gravi disturbi ematici

  • Oski, F.A. and Naiman, J.L. “Effect of live measles vaccine on the platelet count.” New England Journal of Medicine 1966; 265:352-56.
  • Bottiger, M., et al. “Swedish experience of two dose vaccination programme aiming at eliminating measles, mumps, and rubella.” British Medical Journal 1987; 295:1264-67.
  • Koch, J. et al. “Adverse events temporally associated with immunizing agents 1987 report.” Canada Diseases Weekly Report 1989; 15:151-58.
  • Fescharek, R., et al. “Measles-mumps vaccination in the FRG: an empirical analysis after 14 years of use. II. Tolerability and analysis of spontaneously reported side effects.” Vaccine 1990; 8:446-56.
  • Nieminen, U., et al. “Acute thrombocytopenic purpura following measles, mumps and rubella vaccination: A report on 23 patients.” Acta Paediatrica 1993; 82:267-70.
  • 146. Farrington, P., et al. “A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and measles/mumps/rubella vaccines.” Lancet 1995; 345: 567-69.
  • Jonville-Bera, A.P., et al. “Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination: a retrospective survey by the French Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres and Pasteur-Merieux Serums et Vaccins.” Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:44-48.
  • Beeler, J. et al. “Thrombocytopenia after immunization with measles vaccines: review of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting Systerm (1990-1994).” Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:88-90.

Il vaccino anti-morbillo [e trivalente MPR] associato a disfunzioni sensoriali [inclusi disturbi visivi e uditivi]

  • Kazarian, E.L., et al. “Optic neuritis complicating measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.” American Journal of Ophthalmology 1978; 86:544-47.
  • Marshall, G.S., et al. “Diffuse retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.” Pediatrics 1985; 76:989-991.
  • Brodsky, L., et al. “Sensorineural hearing loss following live measles virus vaccination.” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 1985; 10:159-63.
  • Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. “Unilateral deafness as a complication of the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination.” British Medical Journal 1988; 297:489.
  • Hulbert, T.V., et al. “Bilateral hearing loss after measles and rubella vaccination in an adult.” New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325:134.
  • Stewart, B.J.A., et al. “Reports of sensorineural deafness after measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.” Archives of Diseases of Childhood 1993; 69:153-54.

Il vaccino anti-morbillo [e trivalente MPR] associato a disfunzioni immunitarie

  • Hirsch, R.L., et al. “Measles virus vaccination of measles seropositive individuals suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and chemotactic factor production.” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 1981; 21:341-50.
  • Nicholson, J.K.A., et al. “The effect of measles-rubella vaccination on lymphocyte populations and subpopulations in HIV-infected and healthy individuals.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1992; 5:528-537.

Il vaccino anti-morbillo [e trivalente MPR] associato a gravi reazioni allergiche

  • Aukrust, L., et al. “Severe hypersensitivity or intolerance reactions to measles vaccine in six children: clinical and immunological studies.” Allergy 1980; 35(7):581-87.
  • McEwen, J. “Early-onset reaction after measles vaccination: further Australian reports.” Medical Journal of Australia 1983; 2:503-505.
  • Koch, J., et al. “Adverse events temporally associated with immunizing agents 1987 report.” Canada Diseases Weekly Report 1989; 15:151-58.
  • Kelso, J.M., et al. “Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine mediated by IgE to gelatin.” J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 91:867-72.
  • Sakaguchi, M., et al. “IgE antibody to gelatin in children with immediate-type reactions to measles and mumps vaccines.” J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 96:563-65.

Morbillo atipico

  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice (July 1980), pp. 53-54.
  • Fulginiti, V.A., et al. “Altered reactivity to measles virus; atypical measles in children previously immunized with inactivated measles virus vaccines.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1967; 202:1075.
  • Martin, D.B., et al. “Atypical measles in adolescents and young adults.” Annals of Internal Medicine 1979; 90:877.
  • Gold, E. “Current progress in measles eradication in the United States.” Infect Med 1997; 14(4):297-300, 310.
  • Nichols, E.M. “Atypical measles: a continuing problem.” American Journal of Public Health 1979; 69(2):160-62.
  • Scott, T.F., et al. “Reactions to live-measles-virus vaccine in children previously inoculated with killed-virus vaccine.” New England Journal of Medicine 1967; 277(5):248-251.
  • Cherry, J.D., et al. “Atypical measles in children previously immunized with attenuated measles virus vaccines.” Pediatrics 1972; 50(5).
  • St. Geme, J.W., et al. “Exaggerated natural measles following attenuated virus immunization.” Pediatrics 1976; 57:148-150.
  • “Atypical measles syndrome.” Lancet 1979, pp. 962-963.

Vaccino anti morbillo [e MMR] associato a  malattie intestinali

  • Thompson, N.P., Wakefield, A.J, et al. “Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?” Lancet1995; 345:1071-1074.
  • Barton, J.R., et al. “Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Scottish children between 1968 and 1983: marginal fall in ulcerative colitis; three-fold rise in Crohn’s disease.” Gut1989; 30:618-622.
  • Whelan, G. “Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.” Med Clin N Am1990; 74:1-12.
  • Ekbom, A., et al. “The role of perinatal measles infection in the aetiology of Crohn’s disease: a population-based epidemiological study.” Lancet1994; 334:508-510.
  • Miyamoto, H., et al. “Detection of immunoreactive antigen with monoclonal antibody to measles virus in tissue from patients with Crohn’s disease.” Journal of Gastroenterology1995; 30:28-33.
  • Wakefield, A.J., et al. “Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn’s disease.” Journal of Medical Virology1993; 39:345-53.
  • Wakefield, A.J., et al. “Crohn’s disease: pathogenesis and persistent measles virus infection.” Gastroenterology1995; 108:911-916.
  • Lewin, J., et al. “Confirmation of persistent measles virus infection of intestinal tissue by immunogold electron microscopy.” Gut 1995; 36:564-69.

Vaccino trivalente MMR [o monovalente anti-morbillo] associato a Autismo

  • Oleske, J. “Elevated rubeola [measles] titers in autistic children.” Abstract presented by D. Zecca and Dr. Graffino at an NIH meeting (September 23, 1997). As quoted by Richard Gallup in “Autismand autoimmunity.” http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/18/14/10.html (April 15, 2002.)
  • Fudenberg, H.H. “Dialysable lymphocyte extract (DlyE) in infantile onset autism: a pilot study.” Biotherapy1996; 9:143-147.
  • Gupta, S. “Immunology and immunologic treatment of autism.” Proceedings of the National Autism Association, Chicago 1996: 455-460.
  • Wakefield, A.J., et al. “Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children.” Lancet1998; 351:637-641.
  • Yazbak, F.E. “Autism:Is there a vaccine connection? Part I. Vaccination after delivery.” 1999. http://www.garynull.com/documents/autism99b.htm
  • Yazbak, F.E. “Autism:Is there a vaccine connection? Part II. Vaccination around pregnancy.” 1999. http://www.garynull.com/documents/autism99b2.htm
  • Yazbak, F.E. “Autism:Is there a vaccine connection? Part III. Vaccination around pregnancy, the sequel.” 2000. http://www.garynull.com/documents/autism99b3.htm
  • Autism:Present Challenges, Future Needs — Why the Increased Rates?” Government Reform Committee Hearing, Washington, DC. (April 6, 2000.)
  • Autism:Why the Increased Rates? A One-Year Update.” Government Reform Committee Hearing, Washington, DC. (April 25-26, 2001.)
  • “The AutismEpidemic: Is the NIH and CDC Response Adequate?” Government Reform Committee Hearing, Washington, DC. (April 18, 2002.)
  • “The Status of Research into Vaccine Safety and Autism.” Government Reform Committee Hearing, Washington, DC. (June 19, 2002.)
  • Kawashima, K., et al. “Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism.Digestive Diseases and Sciences(April 2000); 45:723-729.
  • Reuters Medical News. “Measles persistence confirmed in some patients with IBD, autisticenterocolitis.” (June 20, 2000). http://www.id.medscape.com/reuters/prof/2000/06/06.20/20000620scie001.html
  • Wakefield, A.J. et al. “Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders.” American Journal of Gastroenterology2000; 95(9):2154-2156.
  • Wakefield, A., et al. “Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: through a glass, darkly.” Adverse Drug Reaction and Toxicologica Reviews2000; 19(4):265-283.
  • Kiln MR,Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.” Lancet1998 May 2;351(9112):1358.
  • Selway, “MMR vaccination and autism 1998. Medical practitioners need to give more than reassurance.” BMJ1998 Jun 13;316(7147):1824.
  • Nicoll A, Elliman D, Ross E, “MMR vaccination and autism 1998,” MJ1998 Mar 7;316(7133):715-716.
  • Lindley K J, Milla PJ, “Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.”Lancet1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907-908.
  • Bedford H, et al, “Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine.” Lancet1998 Mar 21;351(9106):907.
  • Vijendra K. Singh, Sheren X. Lin, and Victor C. Yang, “Serological Association of Measles Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 with Brain Autoantibodies in Autism,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, Oct 1998, Vol. 89, No. 1, p 105-108.

Il vaccino anti morbillo è inefficace
[spesso si verificano focolai tra popolazioni altamente o pienamente vaccinate]

  • FDA. “FDA workshop to review warnings, use instructions, and precautionary information [on vaccines].” (Rockland, Maryland: FDA, September 18, 1992), p. 27.
  • Faich, G.A., et al. “Measles outbreak in Rhode Island.” Public Health Report1981 May-June; 96(3):264-266.
  • CDC. MMWR(February 1, 1985).
  • CDC. MMWR(June 1984).
  • CDC. MMWR(June 6, 1987).
  • Gustafson, T. “Measles outbreak in a fully immunized secondary school population.” New England Journal of Medicine1987; 316:771-74.
  • Markowitz, L.E., et al. “Patterns of transmission in measles outbreaks in the United States, 1985-1986.” New England Journal of Medicine1989; 320:75-81.
  • Robertson, S.E., et al. “A million dollar measles outbreak: epidemiology, risk factors, and a selective revaccination strategy.” Public Health Reports(January-February 1992), p. 24.
  • Edmonson, M.B., et al. “Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.” Journal of the American Medical Association1990; 263:2467-71.
  • Minnesota Department of Health. “Measles summary, 1987.”
  • CDC. “Measles.” MMWR1989; 38:329-330.
  • CDC. “Measles — Quebec.” MMWR1989; 38:329-30.
  • CDC. “Measles — United States, 1990.” MMWR1991; 40(2):369.
  • CDC. “U.S. Childhood Immunization Update: Measles.” (March 1997).
  • CDC. “Measles — United States, 1999.” MMWR 2000; 49(25): 557-560.

L’immunità naturale è superiore

  • CDC. “Babies of vaccinated moms more susceptible to measles.” Pediatrics(November 1999).
  • “Natural immunity to measles yields greater neutralizing capacity than vaccination.” Journal of Medical Virology 2000; 62:91-98.
  • Morbillo contro Morbillo

Il vaccino anti morbillo altera l’epidemiologia della malattia
[provoca tassi più elevati di morbillo in gruppi ad alto rischio]

  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice(July 1980), p. 51.
  • Macgregor, J.D., et al. “Epidemic measles in Shetland during 1977 and 1978.” British Medical Journal1981; 282(6262):434-436.
  • Gold, E. “Current progress in measles eradication in the United States.” Infect Med1997; 14(4):297-300, 310.
  • CDC. “Measles — United States, 1999.” MMWR 2000; 49(25): 557-560.

Sperimentazioni sui bambini comprovano la mortalità del vaccino anti morbillo

  • Sabin, A.B., et al. “Successful immunization of children with and without maternal antibody by aerosolized measles vaccine. I. Different results with undiluted human diploid cell and chick embryo fibroblast vaccines.” JAMA1983; 249:2651-62.
  • Sabin, A.B., et al. “Successful immunization of children with and without maternal antibody by aerosolized measles vaccine. II. Vaccine comparisons and evidence for multiple antibody response.” JAMA1984; 251:2363-71.
  • Whittle, H.C., et al. “Immunisation of 4-6 month old Gambian infants with Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine.” Lancet1984; ii:834-37.
  • Whittle, H., et al. “Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in The Gambia: antibody response and side-effects.” Lancet1988; ii:811-814.
  • Aaby, P., et al. “Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau: protective efficacy.” Lancet1988; i:809-811.
  • Garenne, M., et al. “Child mortality after high-titre measles vaccines: prospective study in Senegal.” Lancet1991; 338:903-907.
  • Whittle, H.C. “Effect of dose and strain of vaccine on success of measles vaccination of infants aged 4-5 months.” Lancet1988; i:963-66.
  • Khanum, S., et al. “Comparison of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwartz strains of measles vaccine given by aerosol or subcutaneous injection.” Lancet1987; i:150-53.
  • Tidjani, O., et al. “Serological effects of Edmonston-Zagreb, Schwartz, and AIK-C measles vaccine strains given at ages 4-5 or 8-10 months.” Lancet1989; ii:1357-60.
  • Markowitz, L.E., et al. “Immunization of six-month-old infants with different doses of Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwartz measles vaccines.” New England Journal of Medicine1990; 332:580-87.
  • Awadu, K.O. Outrage! How Babies Were Used as Guinea Pigs in an L.A. County Vaccine Experiment.(Long Beach, CA: Conscious Rastra Press, 1996).

Parotite atipica

  • Gunby, P. “‘Atypical’ mumps may occur after immunization.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1980; 243(23): 2374-75.
  • Family Practice News (July 15, 1980), p. 1

Il vaccino contro la parotite è spesso inefficace e altera l’epidemiologia della malattia
[provoca tassi più elevati in gruppi ad alto rischio]

  • Fiumara, N.J., et al. “Mumps outbreak in Westwood, Massachusetts — 1981.” MMWR 1982; 33(29):421-430.
  • Kaplan, K.M., et al. “Further evidence of the changing epidemiology of a childhood vaccine-preventable disease.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1988; 260(10):1434-1438.
  • Briss, P. A., et al. “Sustained transmission of mumps in a highly vaccinated population: assessment of vaccine failure and waning vaccine-induced immunity.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994; 169:77-82.
  • Sawada, et al. Lancet 1993; 342:371.
  • CDC. “Mumps — United States, 1985-1988.” MMWR 1989; 38:101-05.

Ragazze che hanno contratto la parotite naturalmente durante l’infanzia hanno meno probabilità di sviluppare il cancro ovarico da adulte

  • West, R. “Epidemiologic study of malignancies of the ovaries.” Cancer 1966; 19:1001-1007.
  • Wynder, E., et al. “Epidemiology of cancer of the ovary.” Cancer 1969; 23:352.
  • Newhouse, M., et al. “A case control study of carcinoma of the ovary.” Brit J Prev Soc Med 1977; 31:148-53.
  • McGowan, L., et al. “The woman at risk from developing ovarian cancer.” Gynecol Oncol1979; 7:325-344.

Vaccini anti rosolia prodotti nei reni di cane e negli embrioni di anatra

  • Spruance, S.L., et al. “Recurrent joint symptoms in children vaccinated with HPV-77DK12 rubella vaccine.” Journal of Pediatrics1972;80(3):413-17.
  • Hilleman, M.R., et al. “Live attenuated rubella virus vaccines: experiences with duck embryo cell preparations.” American Journal of Diseases of Children1969; 118:166-171.
  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice (July 1980), pp. 53-54.

Vaccini anti rosolia prodotti in tessuti polmonari di feti umani

  • Plotkin, S.A. “Development of RA 27/3 attenuated rubella virus grown in WI-38 cells.” Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. Cited in International Symposium on Rubella Vaccines,London 1968; Symposium Series on Immunobiol. Standards (Karger, Basel/New York, 1969); 11:249-260.
  • Hayflick, L., et al. “The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.” Exp. Cell Res.1961; 25:585-621.
  • Plotkin, S.A., et al. “Studies of immunization with living rubella virus. Trials in children with a strain cultured from an aborted foetus.” Amer. J. Dis. Child.1965; 110:381-389.
  • Hoskins, J.M., et al. “Behaviour of rubella virus in human diploid cell strains. I. Growth of virus. II. Studies of infected cells.” Arch. ges. Virusforsch1967; 21:283-296.
  • Hayflick, L. “The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains.” Exp. Cell Res.1965; 37:614-636.
  • Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR); 55th edition. (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 2001), p. 1966.

Vaccino anti rosolia e artrite

  • Cooper, L.Z., et al. “Transient arthritis after rubella vaccination.” Am J Dis Child1969; 118:218-225.
  • Spruance, S.L., et al. “Joint complications associated with derivatives of HPV-77 rubella virus vaccine.” American Journal of Diseases in Children1971; 122:105-111.
  • Swartz, T.A., et al. “Clinical manifestations, according to age, among females given HPV-77 duck rubella vaccine.” American Journal of Epidemiology1971; 94:246-51.
  • Weibel, R.E., et al. “Influence of age on clinical response to HPV-77 duck rubella vaccine.” J. of American Medical Association1972; 222:805-807.
  • Thompson, G.R., et al. “Intermittent arthritis following rubella vaccination: a three year follow-up.” American Journal of Diseases of Children1973; 125:526-530.
  • Chantler, J.K., et al. “Persistent rubella infection and rubella-associated arthritis.” Lancet(June 12, 1982):1323-1325.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Prolonged arthritis, viraemia, hypogamma-globulinaemia, and failed seroconversion following rubella immunisation.” Lancet1984; 1:1475-1476.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Postpartum rubella immunization: association with development of prolonged arthritis, neurological sequelae, and chronic rubella viremia.” Journal of Infectious Diseases1985; 152:606-612.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Rubella-associated arthritis. Comparative study of joint manifestations associated with natural rubella infection and RA 27/3 rubella immunisation.” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases1986; 45:110-114.
  • Institute of Medicine. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines.(Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991).
  • Benjamin, C.M., et al. “Joint and limb symptoms in children after immunisation with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.” British Medical Journal 1992; 304:1075-78.

Vaccino anti rosolia e disturbi neurologici

  • Kilroy, A.W., et al. “Two syndromes following rubella immunization.” Journal of the American Medical Association1970; 214:2287-2292.
  • Gilmarten, R.C., et al. “Rubella vaccine myeloradiculoneuritis.” Journal of Pediatrics1972; 80:406-412.
  • Schaffner, W., et al. “Polyneuropathy following rubella immunization: a follow-up study and review of the problem.” American Journal of Diseases of Children1974; 127:684-688.
  • Institute of Medicine. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines.(Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991).
  • Muhlebach-Sponer, M., et al. “Intrathecal rubella antibodies in an adolescent with Guillain-Barre syndrome after mumps-measles-rubella vaccination.” European Journal of Pediatrics 1994; 154:166.

Vaccino anti rosolia e diabete

  • Menser, M., et al. “Rubella infection and diabetes mellitus.” Lancet(January 14, 1978), pp. 57-60.
  • Rayfield, E.J., et al. “Rubella virus-induced diabetes in the hamster.” Diabetes(December 1986); 35:1278-1281.
  • Ehrengut, W. “Central nervous system sequelae of immunization against measles, mumps, rubella and poliomyelitis.” Acta Paediatrica Japonica1990; 32:8-11.
  • Aubrey, J., et al. “Postpartum rubella immunization: association with development of prolonged arthritis, neurological sequelae, and chronic rubella viremia.” Journal of Infectious Diseases(September 1985); 152(3):606-612.
  • Coulter, Harris. “Childhood vaccinations and Juvenile-Onset (Type-1) diabetes.” Congressional Testimony. Committee on Appropriations, subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies.(April 16, 1997).
  • Coyle, P.K., et al. “Rubella-specific immune complexes after congenital infection and vaccination.” Infection and Immunity(May 1982); 36(2):498-503.
  • Numazaki, K., et al. “Infection of cultured human fetal pancreatic islet cells by rubella virus.” American Journal of Clinical Pathology 1989; 91:446-451.

Vaccino anti rosolia e Sindrome da fatica cronica

  • Tobi, M., et al. “Prolonged atypical illness associated with serological evidence of persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection.” Lancet1982; 1:61-64.
  • Bicker, U. “Some new aspects of autoimmunity.” Journal of Immuno-pharmacology1986; 8:543-559.
  • Allen, A.D. “Is RA27/3 rubella immunization a cause of Chronic Fatigue?” Medical Hypotheses1988; 27:217-220.
  • Lieberman, A.D. “The role of the rubella virus in the chronic fatigue syndrome.” Clinical Ecology 1991; 7(3):51-54.

Vaccino anti rosolia e tassi di scarsa efficacia

  • Klock, L.E., et al. “Failure of rubella herd immunity during an epidemic.” New England Journal of Medicine1973; 288(2):69-72.
  • Allan, B. “Rubella immunisation.” Australian Journal of Medical Technology1973; 4:26-27.
  • Lawless, M., et al. “Rubella susceptibility in sixth-graders.” Pediatrics(June 1980); 65:1086-1089.
  • Bart, K.J., et al. “Universal immunization to interrupt rubella.” Review of Infectious Diseases1985; 7(1):S177-184.
  • Crowder, M., et al. “Rubella susceptibility in young women of rural East Texas: 1980 and 1985.” Texas Medicine1987; 83:43-47.
  • Fulginiti, V. “Controversies in current immunization policy and practices.” Current Problems in Pediatrics1976; 6:14.
  • Herrmann, K.L., et al. “Rubella antibody persistence after immunization.” Journal of the America Medical Association1982; 247(2):193-196.
  • Tingle, A.J., et al. “Failed rubella immunization in adults: association with immunologic and virological abnormalities.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 1985; 151(2):330-336.

Il vaccino anti rosolia altera l’epidemiologia della malattia
[provoca tassi più elevati di rosolia in gruppi ad alto rischio]

  • Cherry, J.D. “The ‘new’ epidemiology of measles and rubella.” Hospital Practice(July 1980), p. 55.
  • CDC. “Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome — United States, 1985-1988.” MMWR1989; 38:173-178.
  • CDC. “Current trends increase in rubella and congenital rubella syndrome — United States, 1988-1990.” MMWR Weekly (February 15, 1991); 40(6):93-99.

Medici rifiutano il vaccino anti rosolia

  • Mendelsohn, R. “Rubella shots for hospital employees.” The Doctor’s People: A Medical Newsletter for Consumers(Evanston, IL, August 1991):1-2.
  • Polk, B.F., et al. “An outbreak of rubella among hospital personnel.” New England Journal of Medicine1980;303:541-545.
  • Orenstein, W.A., et al. “Rubella vaccine and susceptible hospital employees: poor physician participation.” Journal of the American Medical Association(February 20, 1981); 245(7):711-713.
  • Sacks, J.J., et al. “Employee rubella screening program.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1983; 249:2675-2678
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2 Commenti su Vaccino MPR: la storia non si cancella!

  1. Buonasera Valentina, grazie per i complimenti che [mi creda] in tutta sincerità avrei preferito evitare se solo le ASL informassero come loro dovere.

    MG

  2. valentina // 30 giugno 2012 alle 15:08 //

    complimenti per la bibliografia!

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